Democracy and government
Government refers to any single body or association that makes laws for the whole society. The government sets standards, provides services and ensures compliance with the law. A government is usually the group or individuals governing an industrialized society, usually a country. Government has been in existence since the earliest civilizations such as Egypt, Rome, India and China.
There are many types of government that are found in many countries in the world. These include absolute, constitutional, representative, decentralized, multi-party democracy, military, multipolar and multipragmatic systems. Absolute government may be ruled by a king or queen, supreme military commander, the president, a prime minister or a cabinet. In a constitutional system, governments are elected for a fixed term. The highest elected officials are known as dictators or “lords”.
A few countries have a hybrid form of government in which some powers are retained by the general assemblies of assemblies elected through universal suffrage, while some powers are transferred to a consultative assembly or “parliament”. These are known as democracy or mixed forms of government. In most developing countries, an autocratic form of government has taken over the centralized state for economic growth and development, leaving only a nominal role for national government. This has been particularly true in Latin America, Southeast Asia, sub-Saharan Africa and Turkey.
democracy refers to a system where the right of citizens to participate in decisions affecting their lives is protected by a government that ensures the equal right of others to do the same. Some democratic governments limit the powers of monarchs or other hereditary leaders. Others, however, allow absolute power to the ruler as regards public policy. There are also countries where a political party governs, with others being ruled by a constitutional monarchy.
The word “monarch” originates from Latin. It means “chicken of the throne.” In many modern times, the term has taken on a slightly different meaning, one that has evolved out of the traditional monarchical role. A more fitting translation would be “lord of the manor.” In many countries today, the term applies to any leader who rules as a member of a hereditary aristocratic class and who chairs or votes at many national or regional gatherings.
Modern governments often reflect the age-old aristocratic conception of the polity. They still tend to adhere to some of the ancient Greek notions of how government should work. democracy is not a new concept; rather, it is a variation on the ancient idea of freedom, which is the right of individuals to choose their own leaders. As with classical liberal ideas, democracy tends to reduce the size of governmental authority so that more people can participate in the political process.